|Frans Hals circa 1649-1700|
He was a French philosopher, mathematician, and writer, dubbed the 'Father of Modern Philosophy'. Much subsequent Western philosophy is a response to his writings, which are studied closely to this day.
Richardson "Pamela" - An epistolary novel (novel composed of a series of letteers) written by Samuel Richardson, first published in 1740. It tells the story of a beautiful 15-year old maidservant named Pamela Andrews, whose nobleman master, Mr. B, makes unwanted advances towards her after the death of his mother, whose maid she was since age 12.
|Author unknown 1665|
He was a philosopher whose importance was not fully realized until years after his death. By laying the groundwork for the 18th century Enlightenment and modern biblical criticism including modern conceptions of the self and, arguably, the universe,he came to be considered one of the great rationalists of 17th century philosophy. His magnum opus, the posthumous Ethics in which he opposed Descarte's mind-body dualism, has earned him recognition as one of Western philosophy's most important thinkers.
He was a French composer, dramatist and song-writer.
Harridans - A strict, bossy, or belligerent old woman
He was a Latine prose writer who studied Platonist philosophy in Athens. Once he was accused of using magic to gain the attentions of a wealthy widow. He distributed a work he wrote in his own defense known as the Apologia.
Manon Lescaut - An opera in fourt acts by Giacomo Puccini. The story is based on a novel by the Abbe Prevost.
A Milesian woman famous for her involvement with the Athenian statesman Pericles. Little is known about her life but she may have influenced Pericles and Athenian politics. She is mentioned in the writings of Plato, Aristophanes and Xenophon.
Syllogism - A formal argument consisting of a major and a minor premise and a conclusion Ex. "No foxes are birds"
"All parrots are birds"
"No parrots are foxes"
|Copy of Ktesilas Artist unknown|
He was the most prominent and influential Greek statesman, orator and general of Athens during the Golden Age - specifically the time between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars.
Fustian - A coarse sturdy cloth made of cotton and flax
Physiognomist - A person who judges human character based on facial features
Charles Antoine Guillaume Pigault-Lebrun - 1753-1835
He twice carried off young ladies of some position, and was in consequence twice imprisoned. The first died almost immediately after her elopement; the second, Mlle de Salens, he married. He became a soldier in the Queen's Guards, then a very unsuccessful actor, and a teacher of French. He also wrote more than twenty plays.
Cosette is Cinderella! She has evil "step sisters" a terrible mother who makes her do chores and she lives in squalor.
Recondite - Little known or secret
Vetch - Any of several climbing plants of the legume family, bearing pealike flowers, esp. Vicia sativa, cultivated for forage and soil improvement
"The supreme happiness in life is the assurance of being loved for oneself, even in spite of oneself."
"Soul gropes for soul and finds it."
"One would not exchange one's darkness for all light."
"We are radiant in our darkness."
I'm surprised by how many gems I keep finding sprinkled throughout. Hugo has these profound quotes interspersed
Faubourg - An ancient French term that could be defined as "suburb"
Savoyards - A dialect of Arpitan (Franco-Provençal). It is spoken in some territories of the historical Duchy of Savoy, nowadays a geographic area spanning France and Switzerland.
Calumny - The making of false and defamatory statements in order to damage someone's reputation; slander
Educable - Capable of being educated or taught
"Animals are nothing but the portrayal of our virtues and vices made manifest to our eyes, the visible reflections of our souls."
Javert hates himself. I would feel bad for him if he wasn't such a douche.
Garde Champetre - A garde champêtre (rural guard) is the combination of a forest ranger, game warden and police officer in certain rural communes in France. Their job is to report to the local mayor. Many of these officers wear green uniforms and many carry firearms. They fall under the general supervision of the Gendarmerie.
|By Achille Deveria 19thC|
He was a French criminal and criminalist whose life story inspired several writers, including Victor Hugo and Honore de Balzac. The former criminal became the founder and first director of the crime-detection Surete Nationale as well as the head of the first known private detective agendy. Vidocq is considered to be the father of modern criminology and of the French police department. Her is also regarded as the first private detective Vautrin - A character from the novels of French writer Honore de Balzac in the La Comedie humaine series. His real name is Jacques Collin. He appears in the novels Le Pere Goriot (Father Goriot, 1834/35) under the name Vautrin.
|By Karl Vogel Von Vogelstein ca1810|
He was a Savoyard philosopher, writer, diplomat and lawyer. He defended hierarchichal societies and a monarchical state in the period immediately following the French Revolution. He called for the restoration of the Bourbons to the throne of France and argued that the Pope should have ultimate authority in temporal matters. He also claimed that the rationalist rejection of Christianity was directly responsible for the disorder and bloodshed which followed the French Revolution of 1789.
Cosmogony - Any scientific theory concerning the coming into existence (or origin) of either the cosmos (or universe), or the so-called "reality" of sentient beings
Gens Sans Aveu - Vagabonds
What's wrong with Javert? Madeleine's doing a lot of good. Leave him alone!
Law-Scrivener - A person who writes a document for another, usually for a fee
Louis d'or - The Louis d'or is any number of French coins first introduced by Louis XIII n 1640. The name derives from the depiction of the portrait of King Louis on one side of the coin; the French royal coat of arms is on the reverse. The coin was replaced by the French franc at the time of the revolution and later the similarly-valued Napoleon, although a limited number of Louis were also minted during the "Bourbon Restoration" under Louis XVIII.
How does Javert know of only one man capable of holding up a cart? How does he know Madeleine is 'the one'? This is just silly.
"No one is more avidly curious about other people's doings than those persons whom they do not concern."
Fiacre - A small hackney coach
Suborn - Bribe or otherwise induce (someone) to commit an unlawful act such as perjury
"An old woman who lived in the house taught her the art of living in penury. There are two stages - living on little, and living on nothing. They are like two rooms, the first dark, the second pitch-black."
"Paupers cannot reach the end of their abode, or of their destiny, except by crouching ever lower."
Fantine is an interesting mother. She sells her looks for her child; her hair, her teeth. Interesting to see the lengths of sacrifice that some people will go through.
Pont-a-Mousson - An industrial town situated on the Moselle River. It contains several historicla monuments including ones from the 18th century.
"Curiosity is a form of gluttony: to see is to devour."
Peremptory - (esp. of a person's manner or actions) Insisting on immediate attention or obedience, esp. in a brusquely imperious way
Simon-pure - Genuinely and thoroughly pure.
Chary - Cautious; wary